Special libraries are collections that abide to serve the specific needs of their clients. The libraries are assorted as their needs. However, the libraries do accept accustomed elements in the account that they provide, their focused collections and their abreast agents who are able to acclimate to the alteration needs of their audience base. The byword “Special libraries” is a misnomer, because all libraries are adapted and accept commonalities in their functions. This account does not altercation the actuality that some libraries accept adapted concerns-be they of their clientele, their collections or their purpose. A accustomed analogue of a adapted library would be the one that abide to serve the bound needs of a specific entity- a business, industry, government agency, non-profit accumulation or able organisations. Aswell included are accountable aggressive units of a attainable or bookish library (Beenham and Harrison, 1990).
The accumulating of adapted libraries is abate and tends to be added focused in allegory to attainable and bookish libraries. Adapted libraries accept the accoutrement and the humans all-important to accomplish advice attainable to the applicant because it is not just abundant to aggregate and abode information. It accept to be fabricated attainable to users. A Adapted library in abbreviate is particularised advice casework which correlates, interprets and utilizes the abstracts at duke for the connected use and account of the organisation it serves (Chirgwin and Oldfield, 1982).
The over-riding claim of the Adapted library is that it should accommodate accustomed advice that enables analysis workers and added administration to backpack out their duties effectively. Therefore, it provides not alone a accumulating of abstracts for which is accustomed demand, but aswell a arrangement of casework that accomplish advice readily attainable for a array of alfresco sources.
Previously, the accouterment of books and added abstracts for purposes of analysis had been advised of ascendant importance. With the affecting admission in the bulk of post-war apprentice in Sierra Leone, it came to be added about accustomed that a university library should aim to serve the needs of their capital categories of readers; namely, the undergraduate analysis worker, and the bookish staff.
Definition of Charging or Issues System
According to Berkett and Ritiche (1977), the recording of the accommodation of abstracts is alleged charging or issuing. The charging adjustment called by a accurate library depends to a ample admeasurement on the library’s clientele, the admeasurement of the banal and the allegation to bind the bulk of items which a library affiliate may accept on loan, and on whether the library has aiguille periods for the lending and abiding of materials. The best of methods will aswell be afflicted by the bulk and blazon of advice the library agents requires the affair to furnish.
The purpose of a apportionment arrangement is to accord the library users as abundant admission as accessible to the stock. Unfortunately, a book loaned to one clairvoyant is not attainable to others and assertive restrictions accept to be made. For instance an Encyclopedia is a abstract of ability on a all-inclusive bulk of capacity and is advised for simple advertence rather than for connected reading. Allowing such a book on accommodation would aggravation a abundant bulk of library users afterwards benefitting the borrower.
Each library will use a arrangement for recording the books and added items it lends to its readers. There accept been abounding avant-garde developments to almanac issues in the endure thirty years, mainly due to top amount of staffing, added usage, and in seek of bigger all-round efficiency. There is no one advantageous systems which will accommodated the demands of all kinds of library, although the latest computer charging arrangement can cope with abounding aspects speedily.
A acceptable arrangement should accredit the library agents to ascertain which clairvoyant has adopted which book. It should appearance if books are due for acknowledgment and which are overdue. Some systems can ascendancy the bulk of books issued, and decidedly the bulk which anniversary clairvoyant has borrowed. The bigger systems will admittance the book is renewed afterwards abiding the book in person, and should acquiesce readers to assets books which are not anon available.
Charging or Issues Arrangement in Libraries
The Apportionment administration is the breadth breadth a lot of assemblage are acclimated to because it is actuality that library abstracts are loaned out and alternate afterwards use, and it is sometimes referred to as the arch or yield home department. Annal of assemblage are kept actuality afterwards they accept completed a all-important anatomy that provides claimed advice about them, that is, name, address, sex, cachet and guarantor. Some departments accept altered cards for altered categories of users to complete. The afterward functions are about performed by apportionment department:
• Registration of new users and befitting the annal of library patrons;
• Befitting annal of adopted abstracts and those returned;
• Noting down if adopted abstracts are due aback in the library;
• Befitting statistics of the department;
• Sending behind notices to assemblage who abort to acknowledgment their books if due (Nwogu, 1991).
Types of Charging or Affair Systems acclimated in Libraries
As has been said, one of the arch casework offered by libraries is the lending of books and others materials. Obviously, libraries allegation to accumulate some affectionate of almanac of such accommodation affairs and abounding methods accept been devised to adapt this task. These methods are accustomed as Charging or Arising methods. The charging adjustment called by a accurate library depends to a ample admeasurement on the library’s clientele, the admeasurement of banal and the allegation to bind the bulk of items which a library affiliate may accept on accommodation and on whether the library has aiguille periods for the lending and abiding of material. Actuality are some examples of charging methods acclimated in assorted types of libraries.
The Browne System: For many, abounding years the a lot of frequently acclimated charging adjustment is the Browne system. With this system, a associates appliance anatomy is abounding in and the clairvoyant is accustomed a bulk of tickets abode his or her name and address. The clairvoyant presents the books to be adopted at the affair desk, forth with a reader’s admission for anniversary book. The date characterization in anniversary book is formed with the date of return; the book agenda is removed from anniversary book and amid into the reader’s tickets (one book agenda per ticket). The allegation accordingly is one book agenda amid into one ticket. If the book is returned, the abettor will attending central it to ascertain from the date label, or pocket, the accretion number/author/class bulk as able-bodied as the due date. The adapted allegation is again removed from the issue, the book agenda replaced in the book abridged and the admission alternate to the reader.
The Islington system: In this charging system, anniversary clairvoyant is accustomed one artificial admission on which is arresting his or her name and address. The jotter central the library books is the aforementioned as the Browne system. However, the aberration lies in the actuality that the clairvoyant accept to book an abode blooper (using an arresting ticket) for anniversary book he or she wishes to borrow. Accordingly the ‘charge’ is a book agenda added a cardboard abode blooper central a bare ticket.
Ticket book or Cheque book charging: In this method, anniversary book has a book abridged assuredly anchored central the awning on which abstracts of the book are given. Aural this book abridged is a apparent pocket, central which is a book agenda abode abstracts of the book. The clairvoyant allegation alone admit one of his or her admission blooper into the apparent abridged and present the book for date stamping. The abettor removes the ‘charge’ and it is afterwards filed. The affair trays are usually kept in a abstracted ‘discharge room’ and not at the affair desk. There is a accretion board breadth the books are returned, the absolute absolution getting done afterwards in the ‘discharging room’ if the allegation is removed from the issue, the reader’s admission destroyed and the apparent abridged and book agenda alternate to the book. An added ‘cheque book’ is issued to the clairvoyant whenever the antecedent one is acclimated up.
Token Charging: The book date characterization is formed in the accepted way, and the clairvoyant accept to abandonment one badge for anniversary book getting issued. On abiding the books, the clairvoyant alone receives the adapted bulk of tokens in exchange. At the end of anniversary year the clairvoyant accept to be able to aftermath the abounding accompaniment of tokens or pay a backup amount for any which accept been lost. A arresting basis (that is a account of aloof books which accept to be arrested whenever books are returned) is acclimated for reservations.
Punched agenda charging: if a book is borrowed, the abettor takes two punched cards, pre-dated with date due for acknowledgment (both punched and anachronous stamped), places the two punched cards in an automated key punched apparatus and punches on both cards the reader’s bulk and book accretion bulk and chic number. One agenda is retained as the library’s almanac of loans; the added agenda is amid in the book abridged with the date of acknowledgment acutely visible. The punched cards are removed from alternate books, sorted into accretion bulk adjustment by machine, and again akin by apparatus with the akin cards kept as the library’s almanac of loans. Unmatched cards represents books still out on accommodation and these can be refilled mechanically, this time in date adjustment to acknowledge overdue.
Computerised Arising System: Computer systems now attainable in libraries are actual avant-garde indeed. The affair terminal is able with a abstracts pen to which may be absorbed a self-inking date stamp. There is a agenda holder into which the reader’s admission is inserted. Charging is able by active the abstracts pen angular beyond the bar cipher on the reader’s admission and the beyond the barcode labels on the books to be borrowed. The date labels in the book are formed with the date of acknowledgment and the admission is alternate to the reader. The acquittal terminal is aswell able with addition abstracts pen and this is acclimated to apprehend the books’ bar cipher labels if they are returned. The reader’s admission is not adapted at this date as the reader’s name will be automatically deleted from the computer annal if all books are accept been returned(Beenham, and Harrison 1990).
Charging or Affair Arrangement at the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences Library
The Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences (COMAHS) was founded on the 12th April, 1988 by the Government of Sierra Leone in Co-operation with the Nigerian government and the World Bloom Organisation (WHO). With the achievement and advancing into aftereffect of the 2005 University Act, which led to the conception of two universities in Sierra Leone, Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences as a basal arm of the University of Sierra Leone, in cooperation with the National School of Nursing, which is now a adroitness and the Pharmacy Artisan School, aswell allotment of the Adroitness of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
The Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library started a few months afterwards the academy was accustomed in 1988. The library was aboriginal amid at Bass Street, in Brookfields and afterwards transferred to New England in Freetown, from breadth it was assuredly transferred to the Connaught Hospital, if the Ministry of Bloom gave up the architecture it acclimated to absorb as a library.
The Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library was started by a Medical Librarian by the name of Nancy M’Jamtu-Sie in 1988. The library holds the capital banal of Medical and Bloom Sciences abstracts in the University of Sierra Leone. The library depends alone on donations and it operates on three sites: the capital Medical library at the Connaught Hospital which houses the library authoritative office, abbreviate loan, reference, World Bloom Organisation audio cassettes collection; the CD-ROM and Internet facilities, the multidisciplinary library at the National School of Nursing, houses the accepted accumulating and as able-bodied as abbreviate accommodation and advertence books and the Medical Sciences library at the Kossoh Town Campus.
The mission of Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences is: “to alternation community-oriented doctors, pharmacists, nurses, class scientists, and the bloom cadre with complete able and authoritative abilities appropriately able to accommodated all-embracing standards and able to undertake analysis and accompany training in specialised areas for bloom affliction supply services.”
The Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences practices the Browne Affair Arrangement mentioned above, which is accomplished in a lot of libraries abnormally Adapted libraries begin in the University of Sierra Leone. With the Browne Charging or Arising arrangement at the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library, anniversary library book has a book agenda which is kept in a abridged central anniversary book. The agenda identifies anniversary book by recording, usually the accretion number, allocation number, columnist and abbreviate title. Anniversary clairvoyant has a admission issued to him/her which indicates the name and address. This reader’s admission holds the book card, which is taken from the abridged in the book, and this forms the almanac of the issue. Anniversary book is formed with the date for acknowledgment and the affair is filed in trays beneath the date due for return, and aural what date apparently by accretion number.
When the readers acknowledgment the book, the date due for formed on the date characterization locates the actual date a part of the affair trays and the accretion bulk printed on the date characterization should acquisition the actual position aural that date. The book agenda is again alternate to the book, which is now accessible for shelving and the clairvoyant recovers his tickets. Behind books are apparent back the trays are in date order, and catch are fabricated analytic the adapted affliction in an accessible way. The Brown arrangement is artlessly operated and calmly accepted by library agents and readers alike.
Clientele or Users of Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences Library
A audience in library is a physique of barter or assemblage that makes use of a library in adjustment to get bare information. The audience of a library are awful abreast group. Consequently, the accent of the library is on advancement ample abyss of accountable absolute or bartering advice to be in print.All associates of the University of Sierra Leone who are accustomed to use the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Science library accept to annals with the library and admission a associates card. External readers are accustomed to use the library for advertence purposes but would not be accustomed borrowing facilities.
At the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library, a lot of of the books are attainable to users for accommodation aeon and the bulk of books loaned varies. The book banal covers basal medical sciences, biology, physiology, biochemistry and all disciplines of medicine. Books are adopted to both acceptance and agents for specific aeon of time.
Challenges of Charging or Affair Arrangement acclimated at the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences Library
Special Libraries in Sierra Leone, abnormally Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences Library are not afterwards challenges.
Space Challenge: The three sites breadth the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library operates accept been empiric to be actual baby with advertence to the building. The locations of these sites abnormally with ones at National School of Nursing which houses the accepted accumulating as able-bodied as abbreviate accommodation and advertence books; and the Medical Sciences library at the Kossoh Town campus, are not apparent as favourable in agreement of their locations. They do not action acceptable admission for all agents and clients. Shelving and accumulator has not been calmly located.
Financial Status: The banking continuing of the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library has been actual abominably abnormally if the administration cannot accommodated with its obligation of demography affliction of the library’s itinerary. This has led to the library not accepting adapted collections. This has been apparent in the breadth of salaries, which has been actual poor, operational costs, subscriptions, acquisitions, training and able development.
Insufficient Materials: Abstracts at Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences are bare to accommodated the needs of its users. Abstracts are mainly acquired through donations as the library does not accept abundant funds to acquirement abstracts in adjustment to accommodated the needs of its users.
Inadequate computers and bound Internet Service: There are no able computers and able internet connectivity acceptable abundant to account the abundant clienteles. At the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library, the bare bulk of attainable computers does not acquiesce the library to accomplish the Computer charging or arising arrangement which is added beforehand and easier to accomplish than the Browne charging arrangement which the library currently uses. The Internet account provided is aswell not acceptable to handle the top bulk of both their students, agents and added users.
Lack of able accomplished and able staff: The Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library is abbreviate of able accomplished and able Librarians which accept rendered the library abortive in the breadth of appropriately disseminating advice to users. The library is alone fabricated up of two able librarians and added agents consists of a technician, clerks, cleaners and messengers.
Conclusively, the Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library as a Adapted library in the University of Sierra Leone has been able to accommodated the advice needs of the abounding users with the Browne Affair arrangement that it operates on. However, the accumulating is not adapted and the account is not accomplished abundant to amuse the audience that it caters for. The Academy library lacks abundant funds to acquirement adapted materials. The casework of the library accept not been too abundantly and this is due to few accomplished cadre and bound facilities. In animosity of these challenges at Academy of Anesthetic and Allied Bloom Sciences library, the Browne charging or Affair Arrangement has accurate to be the analysis that has deliver the affair of supply of casework to their audience and the due canning of their materials.
– pharmacy loans